808s & Heartbreak is the fourth studio album by American producer and vocalist Kanye West. West recorded the album with the help of producers No I.D., Jeff Bhasker, and others. Guest vocalists on the album include Kid Cudi, Young Jeezy, Mr Hudson, and Lil Wayne. Conceived in the wake of several distressing personal events, 808s & Heartbreak marked a major musical departure from West’s previous rap records, instead featuring a sparse, electronic sound and vocals sung through an Auto-Tune processor. The production also abandons conventional hip hop sounds in favor of a minimalist sonic palette, with prominent use of the Roland TR-808 drum machine. West’s lyrics explore themes of loss, alienated fame, and heartache, inspired by the breakup with his fiancé, his struggles with pop stardom, and the death of his mother.